(to go with MN 27)
I. Tathgata: “Thus Come” or “Thus Gone”
- “Thus Come” (tathā āgata): come to Buddhahood in the same way as all the Buddhas of the past have come, i.e., byfulfilling the Ten Perfections (pāramīs): giving, moral discipline, renunciation, wisdom, energy, patience, truthfulness, determination, loving-kindness, equanimity
- “Thus Gone” (tathā gata): “gone” to Nibbāna in the same way that all the liberated ones of the past have gone, i.e., by the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right efforts … the Noble Eightfold Path
II. Arahaṃ: the Accomplished One (Worthy One, Consummate One)
- because he has destroyed all defilements (kilesa, āsava)
- because he has gained liberation from the round of birth and death
- because he is worthy (arahati) to receive offerings and veneration
III. Sammā Sambuddha: Fully Enlightened One
- By perfect and complete comprehension of all the principles governing the spiritual life, and of all things that should be known with wisdom: the entire domain of cognizable phenomena
IV. Vijjācaraṇasampanna: Perfect in True Knowledge and Conduct
- He is endowed with the three “true knowledges” (vijjā): recollection of past lives; of the passing away and rebirth of beings; and of the destruction of defilements. (This may be elaborated in terms of other knowledges.)
- Conduct: Moral restraint, restraint of the senses, moderation in eating, wakefulness, etc., including the various meditative attainments.
- Briefly: “True knowledge” is the knowledge of whatever is good and harmful for living beings; “conduct” is compassionate conduct to deter them from harm and direct them to the good.
V. Sugata: Sublime One (Fortunate One, “Well Gone One”)
- He has gone along the good path, the Noble Eightfold Path.
- He has gone to the good state, the deathless state, Nibbāna.
VI. Lokavidū: Knower of the Worlds
- He knows the world of beings: all sentient beings in all realms
- He knows the “astronomical world”: the world-systems spread out in immeasurable space and time
- He knows the “world of formations” (saṅkhāraloka}
VII. Anuttara Purisadammasārathī: Unsurpassed trainer of tamable persons
VIII. Satthā Devamanussānaṃ: teacher of gods and human beings
IX. Buddha: the Enlightened One
- He is himself enlightened.
- He enlightens others.
X. Bhagavā: the Blessed
- “This is a term signifying the respect and veneration given to him as the highest of all beings and distinguished by his special qualities.” (Visuddhimagga)